rook chess piece
rook chess piece

The rook chess piece (sometimes incorrectly called the castle or the tower) is an important piece in the game of chess. Let’s take a deeper look at how this piece behaves in chess.

Position of the Rook Chess Piece on the Board

In total, there are four rooks in the game of chess. Both players start the game with two rooks, which are placed in the corners of the board. In the starting formation, a rook is surrounded by a knight and two pawns. As a result of this placement, the rooks are heavily restricted in their movement.

rook starting position on the chess board

How Does the Rook Chess Piece Move

The movement of the rook in chess is quite straight-forward. It can move any number of unoccupied squares both horizontally or vertically. The rook cannot jump over other pieces. In this fictitious example below only the White (right) Rook piece is free to move since there are no obstructing pieces in the way.

rook directional moving in chess

Rook’s Relative Value

The rook is considered a major piece, alongside the queen. It is the second most valuable piece in chess. Its relative value is said to be about 5 pawns. However, its actual value depends on the specific position and stage of the game. When keeping track of your chess moves, the rook should be indicated by the letter R.

A strategic maneuver known as a “rook lift” involves moving the rook from its original rank to a higher rank to prepare for an attack on the enemy’s position. This maneuver can be a powerful surprise tactic in the mid to late game.

The Rook Chess Piece Strategy

Starting in the corners of the chess board, the rook is completely blocked by other friendly pieces. For that reason, the rooks are often the last pieces to move.

The usual procedure for rook development looks something likes this:

  • Castle either on the king-side or queen-side
  • Clear all other pieces from the back rank (except the king)
  • Move one or both rooks to open files, if there are any

When both rooks are defending each other, this is known as connected rooks.

Place Rooks on Open Files

A main goal of rook development is to place at least one (preferably both) rooks on open (or semi-open) files. This way, they can make use of their long-range movement capabilities and attack deeply into the enemy camp.

Castling with Rook and King

The rook has only one special move; castling.

To Castle, means to move both the king and rook simultaneously, sometimes also referred to as a “double move” in chess. This move, when used correctly, offers protection to the king now behind a wall of pawns, as well as activating the rook into play. In order to ‘qaulify’ for this move there are some prerequisites that need to be met.

Firstly, the king and rook pieces must not have been moved in the current game. They need to be in their starting positions. Your king cannot be in check or checkmate, and further to this neither can the square the king would land be under any threat. Finally there are no pieces between the king and the rook pieces.

If all these requirements are met, you can use the castle move.

How to castle:

how to castle in chess

The king moves two squares towards the rook either to the left or to the right of the board, depending where the above conditions are met. The rook then jumps over the king and is placed directly next to it. If are paying good attention you will notice there are two variations of castling; The ‘Short Castle’ or the ‘Long Castle’. Each has its own pros and cons due to different positioning.

Short Castle – Towards Rook on the right of the board (h-file)

short castle in chess

Long Castle – Towards Rook on the left of the board (a-file)

long castle in chess

Strategic uses for the Rook Chess Piece

Especially towards the middlegame and endgame, rooks can become very important strategic pieces, by placing them on the seventh rank;

strategic uses for the rook chess piece

Rook Chess Piece in the Endgame

Rooks play an important role in the endgame, as they are often the only major piece that is still on the board in the later phases of the game. Also, they become increasingly stronger in the endgame, when their movement is less restricted by enemy pawns and pieces.

Rooks are also a central component to a lot of different checkmating patterns in the endgame.

Tips for Using the Rook Chess Piece Optimally

  1. Castle Early, bring a Rook into play quickly
  2. Attack by placing Rooks on seventh rank
  3. Practice Common Rook-Endgames

Common Checkmating Patterns for the Rook Chess Piece


FAQs – Rook Chess Piece

How Does the Rook Move in Chess?

The rook can move any number of unoccupied squares in any horizontal or vertical direction.

Can the Rook Move Backwards?

Yes, the rook is allowed to move backwards.

Can the Rook Jump Over Other Pieces?

No, the rook cannot jump over any other pieces.

How Many Pawns is the Rook Worth?

The rook is said to be worth about five pawns. He does, however, increase in value during the endgame, where his movement is less restricted by pawns and other pieces.

Can You Checkmate with a Rook?

Yes, it is possible to checkmate with just a rook and your own king, as long as the enemy king doesn’t have sufficient protection. In an endgame against a lone enemy king, a checkmate with king and rook can be forced.


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